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Spine

Anatomy of the Spine (Lumbar, Cervical and Thoracic)

Lumbar Spine Anatomy

The lumbar spine is composed of the lower 5 vertebrae, which have been numbered L1–L5. The lowest vertebra of the lumbar spine (L5) is connected to the top of the sacrum, which is a triangular bone present at the base of the spine fitting into the two pelvic bones. In some cases, an extra or sixth lumbar vertebra may be present.

Cervical Spine Anatomy

The spine, also called the back bone, plays a vital role in stability, smooth movement and protection of the delicate spinal cord. It is made up of bony segments called vertebra with fibrous tissue called intervertebral discs between them. The vertebra and discs form the spinal column from the head to the pelvis, giving symmetry and support to the body.

Thoracic Spine Anatomy

Thoracic spine is the central part of the spine, also called as dorsal spine, which runs from the base of the neck to the bottom of your rib cage. The thoracic spine provides flexibility that holds the body upright and protects the organs of the chest.

Conditions

Spondylolysis

Spondylolysis is a stress fracture of vertebra that may progress into spondylolisthesis, a condition of displacement of vertebrae from the spinal column. Spondylolysis is the cause for frequent low back pain in children. It is more common among children and teenagers who participate actively in sports such as football, weightlifting and gymnastics.

Cervical Radiculopathy/Myelopathy

Disc protrusions in the cervical or neck area places pressure on nerve roots (nerve root compression) or the spinal cord causing radiculopathy. Radiculopathy is a medical term used to describe the neurological deficits that can occur from pressure on the nerves and spinal cord, such as arm or finger weakness, numbness or pain.

Lumbar Radiculopathy

Back pain is a common condition affecting approximately 80% of the population at some point in their lives. The area usually affected is the lower back (lumbar region) as it bears most of the upper body’s weight. Pain in the lower back may sometimes radiate to the legs. This is referred to as lumbar radiculopathy or sciatica. Lumbar radiculopathy can be extremely debilitating and interfere with your daily activities.

Neck Pain

The first 7 vertebral bones on the spinal column form the cervical spine and are located in the neck region. The neck bears the weight of the head, allows significant amount of movement, and also less protected than other parts of spine. All these factors make the neck more susceptible to injury or other painful disorders. Common neck pain may occur from muscle strain or tension in everyday activities including poor posture, prolonged use of a computer and sleeping in an uncomfortable position.

Low Back Pain

Low back pain can be disabling; however, most cases heal with time (2-12 weeks) and with conservative therapy. Surgery is suggested when symptoms persist and begin to affect daily activities.

Back Pain

Back pain or backache is the pain felt in the back that may originate from muscles, nerves, bones, joints or other structures in the spine. Back pain is one of the most common medical problems experienced by most people at some time in their life. Back pain can be acute usually lasting from few days to few weeks, or chronic lasting for more than three months.

Spondylolisthesis

Spondylolisthesis is the displacement of vertebral disc from the spinal column. Outward (forward) displacement is termed as anterolisthesis and inward (backward) displacement is termed as retrolisthesis. This condition is often preceded by spondylolysis, a degenerative condition of the vertebra.

Spine Deformities

The Spine or backbone provides stability to the upper part of our body. It helps to hold the body upright. It consists of series of irregularly shaped bones appearing in a straight line. The spine has two gentle curves, when looked from the side and appears to be straight when viewed from the front. When these curves are exaggerated, pronounced problems can occur such as back pain, breathing difficulties, and fatigue.

Facet joint Arthritis

Facet joint arthritis also known as facet joint syndrome is a form of arthritis that affects the facet joints of the spine. This condition related to the aging process. Facet joints are synovial joints. Normally the facet joints are lined by a cartilage and a membrane of synovium.

Herniated Disc (cervical and lumbar)

Herniated disc (Lumbar)

Herniated disc is a condition in which the outer fibers (annulus) of the intervertebral disc are damaged causing the soft inner material of the nucleus pulposus to rupture out of its space. A herniated disc, common in the lower back (lumbar spine) occurs when there is a tear in the outer lining of the disc (annulus fibrosus). This causes the inner jelly-like material (nucleus pulposus) to leak out and place pressure on the adjacent spinal nerve root. It is the most common cause of low back pain and pain that radiates down the leg (radiculopathy).

Herniated disc (Cervical)

Herniation of a disc is an anomalous spine condition characterized by leakage of the inner contents of the intervertebral disc, due to cracks in its outer wall. Herniated disc is commonly seen in the cervical or neck region, a condition called cervical herniated disc (CHD). CHD is followed by arm or neck pain that may arise due to compression of the spinal nerves by the protruding disc material. This condition is frequently reported in people between 30-40 years of age as well as elderly people.

Sciatica

Sciatica is a painful condition caused by the irritation of the sciatic nerve. The sciatic nerve is the longest nerve in our bodies. It begins in the lower back and extends through the buttocks down the back of each leg to the thighs and feet.

Scoliosis

Scoliosis is a condition characterized by abnormal curvature of the spine causing a deviation to one side. It causes a physical deformity making the spine look like the letter “C” or “S” instead of the letter “I”. Scoliosis can affect either the mid or the lower back, but the scoliosis of the mid back is more common. Scoliosis can occur at any age.

Degenerative Disc Disease

Degenerative disc disease (DDD) refers to gradual deterioration of the intervertebral discs between the vertebrae. DDD is a misnomer as it is not actually a disease but a condition that affects the strength, resiliency and structural integrity of the intervertebral discs due to advancing age, trauma, injury, repetitive movement, improper posture, or poor body mechanics. DDD is commonly seen in individuals over 50 years of age.

Spinal Stenosis (Lumbar and Cervical)

Cervical Stenosis

Cervical spine refers to neck portion of spine, and cervical spine conditions may result from overuse injuries, trauma and certain diseases. Cervical stenosis refers to narrowing of the spinal canal that protects the spinal cord and its branching nerves. The condition causes neck pain radiating to arms and hands, numbness or weakness in the legs.

Lumbar stenosis

Lumbar stenosis is the compression of spinal nerves caused by narrowing of spinal canal and it is one of the common causes of low back pain. Spinal stenosis can also affect the spine in neck region. The symptoms include back pain, burning or aching type of pain in buttocks that radiates to the legs (sciatica), weakness in the legs or "foot drop”.

Cauda Equina Syndrome

Cauda equina syndrome is an emergency condition characterized by persistent severe low back pain caused by compression of a bundle of spinal nerves (cauda equina) at the end of the spinal cord (lower back and hip region). If not treated promptly, it can lead to permanent paralysis of the legs, or bowel, bladder and sexual problems.

Kyphosis

Kyphosis is a condition of abnormal curvature of the spine that causes rounding of the upper back or a hunchback. The thoracic portion of the spine normally has a “C”-shaped curve, but excessive forward curve in the spine leads to kyphosis. In adults, kyphosis may develop as a result of degenerative diseases such as arthritis, disc degeneration, osteoporotic fractures, traumatic injuries and slippage of vertebral disc. Kyphosis most commonly affects the thoracic spine, but can involve the cervical and lumbar portions too.

Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

The sacroiliac joint is one of the large joints in the body and is formed by the connection of the sacrum and the right and left iliac (pelvic) bones. The sacroiliac joints have small amount of movement and transmits all the forces of the upper body to the lower body. The sacrum is the triangular-shaped bone at the bottom of the spine, below the lumbar spine. The sacroiliac joint acts as a shock-absorbing structure. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction or Sacroiliac joint pain is one of the common causes of the low back pain.

Cervical Disc Protrusion

Cervical disc protrusion, commonly known as disc bulge occurs when the spinal discs and associated ligaments are intact, but may form an outpouching that will press on the spinal nerves. This condition causes pain in the neck, shoulder and the arms. Usually, the symptoms include a dull, aching, or sharp pain in the neck or the shoulder blades.

Ankylosing Spondylitis

The term ankylosis stands for loss of mobility of the spine, whereas spondylitis means inflammation of the spine. Therefore, ankylosing spondylitis is a condition where chronic inflammation of spine and sacroiliac joint, results in complete fusion of the vertebrae leading to pain and stiffness in the spine. Sacroiliac joints are present in the lower back where the sacrum part of the vertebrae joins the iliac bones.

Whiplash

Whiplash is a soft tissue injury to the neck, usually caused by sudden forceful jerk commonly occurring as a result of an automobile accident, sports injuries, or an accidental fall. Sometimes whiplash may also be referred to as neck strain, neck sprain or hyperextension injury.

DISH (Diffuse Iliopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis)

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a condition commonly affecting the spine characterized by calcification (bony hardening) of ligaments, tendons and joint capsule insertions. Usually the upper portion of the back (thoracic spine) is affected, but it may also involve the neck (cervical spine) and lower back (lumbar spine).

Cervical Degenerative Disorder

Cervical degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a misnomer as it is not a disease as such but a condition that affects the strength, resiliency and structural integrity of the intervertebral discs due to increasing age, trauma, injury, repetitive movement, improper posture, or poor body mechanics. Cervical DDD is commonly seen in adults after 50 years of age and most of them are usually not aware about their condition until they are examined for some other health condition.

Lordosis

The spine forms natural curves at the neck, torso and lower back, which allows it to absorb shock and hold the weight of the head. When this curvature is accentuated at the lower back, it is a condition called lordosis. Lordosis may develop during childhood as a benign condition, or may develop later in life as a result of poor posture, osteoporosis, obesity, discitis (inflammation of the intervertebral discs) or spondylolisthesis (mal-alignment of the vertebrae).

Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease

Lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a common cause of low back pain. The vertebrae are cushioned by intervertebral discs which act as shock absorbers, for the spine. Over time, these natural shock absorbers wear out and degenerate due to aging, trauma or injury leading to DDD. Degenerative disc disease is not actually a disease but refers to the changes in the spine that occur as a part of the normal aging process.

Lumbar Disc Herniation

Lumbar disc herniation is the most common cause of low back pain and leg pain (sciatica). The lumbar intervertebral discs are flat and round, present between the lumbar vertebrae and act as shock absorbers when you walk or run. There is a soft, gelatinous material in the center (nucleus pulposus) which is encased in strong elastic tissue forming a ring around it called annulus fibrosus.

What’s New in Cervical Herniated Disc

Herniation of a disc is an anomalous spine condition characterized by leakage of the inner contents of the intervertebral disc, due to cracks in its outer wall. Herniated disc is commonly seen in the cervical or neck region, a condition called cervical herniated disc (CHD). CHD is followed by arm or neck pain that may arise due to compression of the spinal nerves by the protruding disc material. This condition is frequently reported in people between 30-40 years of age as well as elderly people.

Procedures

Non-surgical treatments for spine conditions

Epidural Steroid Injections

Epidural spinal injection is a non-surgical treatment option utilized for relieving back pain. Spine degenerative conditions such as herniated disc, spinal stenosis and many others may induce back pain due to the compression of the associated spinal nerves. This pain or numbness may extend to the other parts of the body such as hips, buttocks, and legs. Doctors start with non-surgical methods to treat back pain and epidural spinal injection is one of these preferences.

Facet Injection

The facet injection procedure may be performed primarily as a diagnostic test to check whether the pain is actually originating from the facet joints. Secondly, it is used to treat inflammation caused by several spine conditions. A facet injection contains a long-acting corticosteroid and an anesthetic agent which is given either directly into the painful facet joint capsule or into the tissues near the joint capsule.

Radiofrequency Ablation

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) also called rhizotomy or neurotomy is a novel non-surgical technique of treating pain. This technique employs radiofrequency waves to produce heat and the heat produced damage the nerves transmitting pain signal to the brain. This procedure is performed to treat painful facet joints in the spine that usually cause chronic low back pain and neck pain.

Sacroiliac Joint Injections

Sacroiliac joint injections can be used both for diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes. As a diagnostic tool, it helps your doctor locate the origin of pain. To diagnose SI joint pain, an anesthetic injection is given to the joint under X-ray guidance. An acute relief in low back pain following the injection indicates an abnormality in SI joint. For therapeutic uses, SI joint injections will contain a steroid medication along with an anesthetic agent in order to provide relief from pain for a longer duration.

Medial Branch Block Injections

Medical branch block is an injection of a local anesthetic near the medial branch nerves to temporarily block the pain signal carried from the facet joints of the spine to the brain. It is used to assist your physician in diagnosing the cause of your back pain.

Lumbar Spinal Bracing

Lumbar braces are external devices used to restrict movement of the lumbar spine and provide support and stability to the lower back region to relieve back pain and promote healing, after surgery or injury. Braces are also called orthotics and are made from different materials such as nylon, rubber, molded plastic and elastic cotton.

Lumbar Spinal Injections

Lumbar spine injections are utilized in the assessment and treatment of low back pain. These injection procedures are valuable in determining whether particular structures are the source for low back pain. Pain initiated by lumbar facet joints is characteristically experienced in the lower back, hip, buttock, and/or leg.

Cervical/Lumbar Traction

Cervical/lumbar traction is a therapy that stretches the spine to relieve pressure on compressed nerves and stretch tight muscles, in order to treat back and neck pain. It may also be used for realigning the spine in cases of dislocation. Traction may be performed manually or mechanically (with the use of weights and pulleys).

Thoracic Spinal Injection

Thoracic facet joints are tiny joints at each section of the spine that impart stability and facilitate guide motion. The facet joints can turn out to be painful due to arthritis of the spine, a back injury or mechanical strain.

Thoracic spine injections are involved in the assessment and treatment of pain in the upper back, chest and rarely, the arm. Acute and chronic pain syndromes from the thoracic spine are much less common than with cervical and lumbar spine. This is valid both for the incidence and the intensity of the disease.

Piriformis Muscle Injection

A spasm of the piriformis muscle can compress the sciatic nerve resulting in severe pain (sciatica). The pain is usually felt over the buttocks but may radiate to the back of the thigh and down the leg as well.

A piriformis muscle injection is used to alleviate the spasm and pain in these patients. The injection comprises an anesthetic and a steroid to reduce the spasm.

Surgical Treatment for Spine Conditions

Lumbar Discectomy

A lumbar discectomy is a surgical procedure to treat a herniated or ruptured disc, and relieve pressure on the spinal nerves.

Spinal Fusion

Spinal fusion is the surgical technique of combining two or more vertebrae. Fusion of the vertebrae involves insertion of secondary bone tissue obtained either through auto graft (tissues from the same patient) or allograft (tissues from the other person) to augment the bone healing process.

Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement

Artificial cervical disc replacement is a spine surgery to replace a degenerated (deteriorated) disc in the neck with an artificial disc. Disc degeneration reduces the height of the disc and may cause a herniated disc. Herniated disc refers to a condition in which the inner central portion (nucleus pulposus) of the spinal disc is forced out through a tear in the outer, fibrous ring (annulus fibrosus) of an intervertebral disc.

Spinal Decompression

Spinal decompression is treatment to relieve pressure on one or many “pinched nerves” of the spinal column. It can be achieved either surgically or by non-surgical methods. It is used to treat conditions which cause chronic backache such as herniated disc, disc bulge, sciatica, and spinal stenosis.

Lumbar and Cervical Laminectomy

Lumbar laminectomy

Lumbar laminectomy, also known as decompression laminectomy, is a spinal surgery done to relieve excess pressure on the spinal nerve(s) in the lumbar (lower back) region.

Cervical Laminectomy

A cervical laminectomy is an operative procedure of removing the bone at the neck (cervical spine) region to relieve pressure on the spinal nerves. It can also be performed to relieve the symptoms of narrowed spinal canal known as spinal stenosis.

Foraminotomy (Lumbar and Cervical)

Cervical Foraminotomy

Cervical foraminotomy is an operative procedure to relieve the symptoms of pinched or compressed spinal nerve by enlarging the neural foramen, an opening for the nerve roots to exit from the spine and travel throughout the body. The neural foramen forms a protective passageway for nerves that transmit signals among the spinal cord and the rest of the body parts.

Lumbar Foraminotomy

Conditions such as a herniated intervertebral disc or bony overgrowth may cause compression of the spinal nerves as they pass through the neural foramen. In the lower back or lumbar region, this can result in lower back pain as well as pain, weakness and numbness in the legs. A lumbar foraminotomy is a surgical procedure to decompress the spinal nerves by removing bone and other tissues that obstruct the neural foramen.

Lumbar Fusion

Lumbar fusion surgery may be used to treat spondylolisthesis (slipping of the spine bones), degenerated discs, scoliosis or kyphosis (abnormal curvature of the spine), spinal infections or tumors, traumatic injury of the spine, recurrent disc herniation, and unstable spine.

Spine Osteotomy

Spine osteotomy is a surgical procedure in which a section of the spinal bone is cut and removed to allow for correction of spinal alignment. Spine osteotomy is usually needed for correction of severe, rigid and fixed spinal deformity when nonsurgical treatments do not relieve symptoms such as numbness, weakness, or pain due to nerve compression or when deformity is getting worse over time. A mild or flexible deformity is usually corrected through positioning and instrumentation.

Scoliosis Treatment

Scoliosis is a condition characterized by abnormal curvature of the spine causing a deviation to one side. It causes a physical deformity making the spine look like the letter “C” or “S” instead of the letter “I”. Scoliosis can affect either the mid or the lower back, but the scoliosis of the mid back is more common. Scoliosis can occur at any age. It can be classified into five categories, depending on the age group affected:

Spinal Cord Stimulator

Back and leg pain often have causes which either improve on their own or which the surgeon can correct. Sometimes there is no easily correctable cause of the pain.

When the neurosurgeon feels that open surgery to decompress the nerves is unlikely to help the pain, an operation to implant a spinal cord stimulator may be very beneficial for the patient.

Spine Deformity Surgery

Spine deformity can be defined as abnormality in the shape, curvature and flexibility of the spine.

The different types of spinal deformities include scoliosis, lordosis and Kyphosis.

Cervical Spine Fusion

Cervical spine fusion is a surgery performed to fuse weak cervical vertebrae with adjacent vertebrae to provide stability and prevent injury to the spinal cord.

A cervical spine fusion may be indicated to stabilize injuries and prevent fracture and spinal cord damage, and to treat misalignment of the vertebrae, herniated discs, arthritis, tumor, deformities and infection.

Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery

MISS is the latest advanced technology available to perform spinal surgeries through small, less than one inch long, incisions. It involves the use of special surgical instruments, devices and advanced imaging techniques to visualize and perform the surgery through such small incisions.

Lumbar Decompression

Lumber decompression is performed under general anesthesia. Your surgeon makes a small incision in the midline over your lower back. The layers of muscle are separated, and the affected nerve root is identified. The lamina (bony arch of your vertebra) may be removed (laminectomy) and the facet joints may be trimmed to reach the compressed nerve.

Lumbar Sympathetic Block

The lumbar sympathetic block is usually indicated as a treatment for conditions such as reflex sympathetic dystrophy (pain and dysfunction of an extremity), Herpes zoster infection, vascular insufficiency (impaired blood flow) and peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage). You are contraindicated for this procedure if you are allergic to the medications being injected, are taking blood thinning medications, have an active infection, or you have diabetes or heart disorders.

Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is a type of spinal fusion procedure in which bone graft is placed between the affected vertebrae in the lower back (lumbar) region through an incision on the patient’s back.

Posterior Lumbar Fusion

Lumbar fusion surgery may be used to treat spondylolisthesis (slipping of the spine bones), degenerated discs, scoliosis or kyphosis (abnormal curvature of the spine), spinal infections or tumors, traumatic injury of the spine, recurrent disc herniation, and unstable spine.

Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

Fusion of vertebrae in lumbar portion of the spine is called as lumbar fusion and the surgery can be done as an open or minimally invasive procedure.

Several techniques are practiced for minimally invasive surgery and they include ALIF, PLIF, TLIF

Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion

Posterolateral lumbar fusion is a surgical technique that involves correction of spinal problems from the back of the spine by placing bone graft between segments in the back and leaving the disc space intact.

Lower Back (Lumbar) Surgery

Low back pain is one of the most common health problems experienced by a majority of individuals, at different phases of their lives.

Most patients with low back pain do not require surgery for the management of their condition. However, surgery may be beneficial in patients with persistent pain, spinal instability, weakness or numbness in legs or feet, and impaired bowel or bladder function.

Lumbar Discectomy

Lumbar discectomy is a surgical procedure performed to remove a herniated or ruptured disc from the lumbar (lower) region and relieve pressure on the nerve, alleviating pain.

Lumbar Foraminotomy, Facetectomy

Facetectomy and foraminotomy are the most common spinal surgical procedures recommended for patients suffering from chronic pain due to spinal nerve compression. Lumbar foraminotomy is a decompression surgery involving the removal of bone and tissue obstructing the neuroforamen to release the pressure on the spinal nerve roots.

Lumbar Interbody Fusion

Lumbar Interbody Fusion (LIF) surgery is a surgical technique involving the removal of the damaged intervertebral disc, and the insertion of a bone graft into the disc space created between the two adjoining vertebrae. Bone grafts promotes healing and facilitate the fusion.

Minimally Invasive Lumbar Surgery

Minimally invasive lumbar surgery is an alternative to open lumbar surgery that allows the surgeon to access the spine through smaller incisions. Special techniques and instruments, used in this approach, minimize muscle and soft tissue damage and also offer several advantages over the traditional open approach which include smaller scars, less blood loss, lower postoperative pain, faster recovery and shorter hospital stay.

Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is a surgery performed to correct the spinal problems in the lower back. The surgery can be implemented either as an open surgery or minimally invasive technique.

Minimally Invasive TLIF

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is a minimally invasive fusion of the vertebrae of the lumbar region (lower back). It is designed to provide stability to the spine and treat back and leg pain.

Posterior Cervical Fusion

Posterior cervical fusion (PCF), a surgical procedure performed through the back of the neck, involves joining or fusing two or more damaged cervical vertebrae. The fusion of vertebrae is also known as arthrodesis. Sometimes metallic plates may be used for fixing the vertebrae, this is also known as instrumentation.

Posterior Cervical Laminectomy and Fusion

Posterior cervical laminectomy and fusion is a surgical procedure performed to decompress the spinal cord and nerve roots in the cervical region of the spine. Some of the spinal conditions that may compress the spinal cord and nerve roots include disc degeneration, bulging or herniated disc, spinal stenosis, and spondylosis.

Cervical Laminoplasty

A cervical laminoplasty is an operative procedure that involves reshaping/repositioning the bone at the neck region (cervical spine) to relieve excess pressure on the spinal nerves. It can also be performed to relieve the symptoms of narrowed spinal canal known as spinal stenosis.

Minimally Invasive Cervical Discectomy

A cervical discectomy is an operative procedure which relieves pressure on the spinal nerves and/or spinal cord by removing the total or a part of the damaged intervertebral disc. Cervical discectomy is performed using minimally invasive approach in selected patients, if appropriate.

Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion

Anterior cervical discectomy with fusion is an operative procedure to relieve compression or pressure on nerve roots and/or the spinal cord due to a herniated disc or bone spur in the neck.

Anterior Cervical Discectomy

Anterior cervical discectomy is an operative procedure to relieve pressure or compression on the nerve roots and/or the spinal cord because of a herniated disc (damaged disc) or a bone spur.

Cervical Corpectomy and Strut Graft

A cervical corpectomy and strut graft is a surgical procedure aimed at relieving the spinal cord compression by removal of the degenerated vertebrae and replacement with a bone graft. A corpectomy is indicated in compression of the spinal cord leading to spinal stenosis or cervical myelopathy.

Others

Nutrition and your Spine

Nutrition refers to the entire cycle of chemical changes occurring within the body depending on what we eat or don’t eat. Nutrition determines the strength of the teeth, bones, and the connective tissues. A healthy diet during childhood paves the way for a healthy adulthood.

Medications

Medications play an effective role in the treatment of back or neck pain. Your doctor may prescribe several medications to help reduce pain and associated symptoms that are caused by unhealthy spinal conditions or deformities.

Possible Complications of Spinal Surgery

The most serious complication of a herniated disc that may occur before surgery is the development of the cauda equine syndrome. It occurs when a large particle of disc material is ruptured into the spinal canal. It occurs in the area where the nerves that control the bowels and bladder travel before they leave the spine. This causes pressure on these nerves resulting in permanent damage. Bowel and bladder controlling ability is lost. If this problem occurs, surgery could be recommended immediately to try to remove the pressure on the nerves.

Post-op Instructions

Your surgeon may recommend a few specific post-operative instructions following spinal surgery. You should follow the instructions of the surgeon to aid in faster recovery with optimum results. The duration of hospitalization depends on the treatment rendered.

Spine Rehabilitation

Dysfunction of the spine can be severely debilitating to one’s ability to perform activities at both home and work. Pain in the lumbar spine (lower back) is the number one reason for missed days of work, followed by pain of the cervical spine (neck) as the second.

Healthy Back Tips

Back and neck pain are the most common health problems experienced by most people, at some point of their lives. People with back pain or neck pain may experience difficulty in performing daily routine activities.

Proper Lifting

Lifting heavy weights and improper lifting of weights is one of the foremost causes for neck pain or lower back pain. Practicing proper lifting techniques is essential to avoid strain on the neck and back.

Prior to lifting weights, stretch slowly and stop lifting weights if you experience any sharp pain.

Providers

Affiliations

  • Texas Orthopedic Hospital
  • Joe W. King Orthopedic Institute
  • American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
  • The American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery